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IL PRICING IN TEMPO DI CRISI E’ STRATEGICO

Il problema della determinazione del prezzo è un eterno problema. A maggior ragione in tempi di crisi.

Credo che per capirne qualcosa si debbano fare alcuni distinguo.

Nei prodotti, in particolare semilavorati, credo che il criterio di formazione del prezzo sia il costo. Energia, materiali, mano d’opera sono gli ingredienti di riferimento. Poi entrano in gioco le variabili imponderabili, come la dimensione del cliente e la concorrenzialità. L’incidenza della mano d’opera resta comunque la variabile di gran lunga più importante. Ecco perché la struttura degli stipendi in Italia costituisce un freno alla competitività. Se si pensa che uno stipendio netto di 1200 € costa all’azienda il doppio, si capisce perché l’incidenza del costo della mano d’opera sul prezzo del prodotto finito rende l’Italia poco competitiva. Non solo, ma si capisce anche perché molte aziende preferiscono decentrare certe lavorazioni.

Nei prodotti finiti, soprattutto di largo consumo, il pricing si basa sul costo. Lo si costruisce in base al mark up che si decide di applicare. Ecco perché le aziende di distribuzione affrontano la crisi abbassando i prezzi. Va da sé che i costi d’acquisto si abbassino. Una cipolla al pubblico o una pesca sarà possibile venderla a prezzi bassi se ne scarico il costo al fornitore, non essendo modificabili i costi di struttura, almeno nel breve termine.

Diverso è il pricing nei servizi. Essendo prevalentemente costituiti da prestazioni sono molto elastici. Persino gli avvocati, i commercialisti, i comunicatori, adattano i loro prezzi alle situazioni che incontrano. L’ipotesi più ragionevole è che si faccia riferimento al break even, ovvero al volume di servizi che si debbono fornire per eguagliare costi e ricavi. Non esistono più tariffari di riferimento. Si praticano i cosiddetti forfait. Certo non è un criterio molto elegante per calcolare i prezzi di vendita, ma in tempi di crisi non si possono fare molti distinguo. Pur di non perdere o di acquisire un cliente si fanno carte false.

In conclusione il problema del pricing rimane tale e quale nella sua integrità anche in tempi di crisi.

Sia  prodotti finiti sia i servizi subiscono ritocchi verso il basso. Non è detto che sia il modo migliore per affrontare la crisi. Ma chi acquista ha una sola preoccupazione: acquistare al minor costo possibile. E’ come dire che la crisi, soprattutto se generalizzata come l’attuale, non lascia scampo. Occorre attendere che aumenti la capacità d’acquisto, quindi la domanda.

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